The material which is used to bind civil engineering and building construction is known as cement. This substance is used to construct that hardens, sets, and adheres with other materials. It is a finely ground powder when it is mixed with the water it becomes a hard mass after being applied to the material.
Process of cement:
There are some common raw materials used to make cement are clay, shale, limestone, marl, chalk, sand, iron ore and bauxite. These materials are heated at high temperatures and ground into fine powder as cement. It is also manufactured by chemicals controlled of aluminium, silicon, iron, calcium, and other materials. These main Cement Products are the second most consumable substance on earth. The powdered cement is mixed with water to form concrete which is used to construct the building.
Types of cement:
Cement plays an important role in the architectural world and it is used mostly for plaster, mortar, and concrete. There are different types of cement are manufactured in many cement plants in India. Below there are different types of cement are explained:
Ordinary Portland cement: This ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is used and manufactured all over the world. It is made up of gypsum materials, calcareous materials, and raw argillaceous. It is used for construction purposes like masonry, flooring, and plastering. It is classified into 33 grades, 43 grades, and 53 grades.
Portland Slag cement: This type of cement are used in rough type environments like marine application and wastewater treatment. It has high strength and it is highly used in long-lasting and high rise structures such as bridges and roads. It will resist various chemical reactions such as sulphate and chloride attacks.
Portland Pozzolana cement: It has a good corrosion resistor and a high degree of impermeability to make the concrete dense. So the construction work becomes long-lasting and this cement is also known as fineness. For this impermeable quality, it lasts for a long term of more than 90 days. It is used in construction work like marine structures, mass concrete structures for bridges, hydraulic structures for dams, sewage works, and piers.
Colored cement (white): It is made up of low content coloring raw materials like manganese oxide and iron oxide. It is used in interior and exterior construction such as fixing marble tiles, flooring, sheathing of walls, roof, plastering, etc. The purpose of the cement is to decorate the surface and give charm to the building.
Hydrophobic Portable cement: This cement is comparatively expensive because they are used in harsh cold weather condition. They are manufactured in the concept of the requirement for the high rainfall areas to improve the building lifeline. It has very good water repellent by manufacturing it with a chemical coating. It is possible to store for a long duration in high humidity. It is used in dams, spillways and underwater constructions.
Rapid Hardening Portland cement: This cement is finely grounded as OPC with higher concrete. It is used for a short period with high strength and is preferred for rapid construction where speed is important.
Low Heat cement: It has a low percentage of tricalcium aluminates and the process is slow. This cement is used for the gravity dam’s construction in mass concrete.